From a programme theory or design perspective, the project’s unrealistically high ambition was demonstrated in its expectation of behaviour change. The project aimed to change behaviour on three fronts: national and international extractive industry business interests; civil society; and local government. Some frustrations or disappointment could have been mitigated by reviewing the scope and scale of activities so that they were more appropriately matched to the problem analysis and by setting achievable goals and targets informed by better programme theory.