There had been extensive mapping of Mukims in Indonesia previously, but the project did not take advantage of this to further develop the mapping to include gender needs, household spending, natural resource zoning, nor to define the extent to which alternative models could promote Mukim communities’ economic and social cohesion. As a consequence, none of the existing mappings were associated with the project’s financial, implementation or monitoring strategies and women and vulnerable groups stayed outside of the development of the natural resource governance process.